Prof. Matthew A. Davies
An Overview of Ultraprecision Diamond Machining of Freeform Optics
, Joseph D. Owen1
, John Troutman1
, Daniel Barnhardt1
, Thomas Suleski2
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science
Department of Optical Science and Engineering
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Charlotte, NC, USA
Biography: Dr. Matt Davies earned a Ph.D in Aerospace Engineering from Cornell University (1993) and then joined the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at NIST. He then came to the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Center for Precision Metrology, in the spring of 2002. Dr. Davies’ research focuses on the study of applied engineering systems and the development of practical applied manufacturing and metrology solutions based on the research. In particular, his work at NIST work was applied to the stability of high speed machining processes and on the study of the complex plastic flows of material that occur in the vicinity of the tool in machining processes. He has continued this research at Charlotte where his group developed a high-bandwidth thermal imaging system that produced the highest resolution thermal images of chip formation available at the time. After coming to Charlotte, Dr. Davies became interested in the manufacture of freeform and structured optics and is the leader of the Freeform Optics Research Group. This group uses a Moore Nanotechnology 350 Five Axis Freeform Generator and a Precitech two-axis lathe as workhorse equipment to study milling and turning of advanced optical materials and complex optical forms. Dr. Davies is also a site Director for the Center for Freeform Optics (http://centerfreeformoptics.org/) a collaborative consortium with the University of Rochester with 15 non-academic members. Dr. Davies has received numerous honors and awards, has more than 60 technical publications, three patents. He is a Fellow of the International Academy for Production Engineering Research (http://www.cirp.net/.) He was also awarded the Bonnie E. Cone Early Career Professorship in Teaching in 2007 and was awarded the Bank of America Award for Teaching Excellence in 2016.
Abstract: Freeform optics are a disruptive technology in the optics industry for imaging and non-imaging applications, allowing nearly arbitrary redirection of light in three-dimensions. However, to realize the potential of freeform optics and freeform optical systems, advances in optical design and engineering, manufacturing, metrology and opto-mechanical design are necessary. This talk will focus on ultra-precision diamond machining as an enabling technology for the manufacture of freeform optics. However, to diamond machine optics within the tolerances of typical optical designs (surface form, mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors, surface finish, etc.) requires: (1) understanding of the material behavior; (2) programming of machine motions for the appropriate machine configuration (coordinated-axis turning, milling, flycutting etc.); and (3) identification and compensation for repeatable process and machine errors. This talk will survey progress in these three areas. It will then discuss several specific example applications from our research for applications ranging from the infrared to the visible for both reflective and transmissive optics. These include: (1) an infrared landscape lens with integrated alignment features raster milled from chalcogenide glass; (2) two examples of Alvarez optics manufactured from germanium and chalcogenide glass by both raster milling and coordinated axis turning; (3) reflective freeform optics manufactured by coordinated axis machining for a miniature imaging spectrometer; (4) freeform infrared optics for non-imaging military applications; and (5) a large scale freeform optic prototype optic machined for an unobstructed reflected telescope application. Related metrology of the optical components will also be shown to emphasize the need for reliable freeform metrology systems that allow for closed-loop correction of errors in freeform optics prior to functional testing. The talk will close by attempting to use these examples to identify the broader research directions needed to realize future cost-effective production of freeform optics and optical systems.
Prof. Ruxu Du
The Science and Art of Mechanical Watch Movement
Prof. Ruxu Du
Institute of Precision Engineering
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Dr. Ruxu Du was born in China in 1955. He received his Master’s degree from the South China University of Technology in 1983 and his Ph.D. degree from the University of Michigan in 1989. He has taught in the University of Windsor, in Windsor, Ontario and University of Miami, in Coral Gables, Florida. Currently, he is a professor in the Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engineering at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). He is also the director the Institute of Precision Engineering of CUHK. His area of research include: design and manufacturing, as well as robotics and automation. He has published over 400 papers in various academic journals and international conferences. He is the associate editor / the members of editorial board of six international journals. He has received a number of awards including:
• Fellow of SME (Society of Manufacturing Engineers);
• Fellow of ASME (Society of American Mechanical Engineers);
• Fellow of HKIE (Hong Kong Institute of Engineers).
He has being happily married for over 30 years and has two children, Jin and Ann. He enjoys Chinese poetry and tennis.
Appeared some 400 years ago, mechanical watch is a piece of fascinating human invention. This presentation first gives a historical review on the mechanical watches and clocks. Then, it shows a sample of the art of mechanical watches: the Perpetual Calendar, the Tourbillon, and etc. The focus of the presentation is nevertheless the science of mechanical watch. It describes some of our research on the design and manufacturing of mechanical movement, including:
(a) A virtual library of escapements;
(b) Dynamical modeling of the Swiss level escapement;
(d) Precision machining and assembly; and
(e) Signature analysis.
A large number of practical examples are included.
Dr. Geon-Hee Kim
Ultra-precision machining of freeform optical system using SPDTM and MRF
Dr. Geon-Hee Kim
Team leader (Principal Researcher),
Optical instrumentation Development Team
KOREA BASIC SCIENCE INSTITUTE (KBSI)
Professor, Nano-Mechatronics, University of Science and Technology
Professor, Graduate School of Analytical Science and technology (GRAST)/ Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University
Sangwon Hyun (KBSI), SooJong Park(Kyung Hee University),
Byung Chang Kim (Kyung Nam University), Tae-Soo Kwak (Gyungnam Natinal Univ. of Sci and Tech)
Biography: Dr. Geon-Hee Kim joined KBSI in 1993 and built a CNC Machining center and CNC Lathe which are necessary for advanced research applying his practical technology such as Master Craftsman Machinery and Craftsman Machine Fitting (1st class). He received master’s degree (Thesis title: The cutting property of non-ferrous metals using diamond turning machine) and Ph. D (Thesis title: A OMM study for profile measurement of ultra-precision aspheric) from Chungnam National University in 1998 and 2003 respectively by operating, an ultra-precision machining tool of Nanoform600 for the first time in Korea. In 1997, he installed the fabricating instruments of Nonoform600, Freeform700A and Moore Nanotechnology 450 in a room self-controlled for constant temperature and humidity from 1998 to 2012 together with some high precision measuring instruments such as WYKO6000 and NT2000. Using these facilities, he has developed ultra-precision processing technology for high-end optical systems which were used for basic and applied sciences such as astronomical space, fusion, laser and semiconductor and etc. He has then installed ASI (Q) and Q-Flex-300 of QED in 2015.
He participated in the CIBER project which is an international joint research project led by NASA JPL. A primary near-infrared mirror incorporated in scientific telescopic payload of a satellite was developed successfully and the satellite was launched. In 2009-2013, he has also performed a joint research about the application of STS (Slow Tool Servo) on the infrared asymmetric reflector for the wide angle telescope with prof. Soo-Jong park who is in Astronomy and Space Engineering department at Kyunghee University in Korea. He has developed a thermal imaging microscope system that can be used for inspecting the defect inside the semiconductor chip. Since 2014, his research is focused on the development of large size freeform optics measurement system with the ultra-precision machining process technology for the large-size freeform optics. He has received Presidential Commendation for technological innovation achievement of mid-size/small company in 2011. Dr. Kim has published 88 papers, 104 patents consisting of 51 registered, 53 applied participating in 30 projects and has also done some technology transfers.
Abstract: Free-form surfaces are extensively applied in the recent optical systems such as HUD (Head Up Display) and HMD (Head Mount Display, Google Glass, etc.). Another non-conventional approach such as multi-array optics is used in the various optical systems (indoor / outdoor lighting, beam projector, vehicle headlight, medical treatment, solar cell condensing lens and etc.). In this talk, the recent trends of ultra-precision machining technology and ultra-precision processing equipment will be introduced together with the free-form surface machining technology such as SPDTM (Single Point Diamond Turning Machining) and MRF (Magneto-Rheological Fluid) polishing which have been installed in Korea Basic Science Institute.
The main topics considered in the presentation are following.
1) Machining of micro-lens array (MLA) by Freeform 700 A as the applications of medical treatment, beam projector and etc.
2) Fabrication of freeform mirror based on electroless nickel plated aluminum for an infrared off-axis telescope.
3) The development of an off-axis three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescope for coastal water remote sensing.
4) Development of large size freeform optics measurement system based on sub-aperture stitching algorithm applying radius of curvature (ROC) including Magneto Rheological Fluid (MRF; Q22-950F-PC (1200 x 1200 mm) will be installed in 2018) polishing machine.
Prof. Kiyoshi Takamasu
High-Accuracy Absolute Length Measurement Using Optical-Comb Pulsed Interferometer and Its Application for Verification of Coordinate Measuring Machines
Prof. Kiyoshi Takamasu
Department of Precision Engineering
The University of Tokyo
Biography: Kiyoshi Takamasu was born and brought up in Tokyo, Japan. He graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1977 and obtained Dr. Engineering in 1982. He is in charge of the professor in the Department of Precision Engineering at the University of Tokyo. His research interest includes precision metrology, coordinate metrology and nanoscale metrology. During last two decades of research work, he has published over one hundred fifty technical papers in international and domestic journals and presented over two hundred papers in international conferences. He is currently the vice president of JSPE (Japanese Society for Precision Engineering) and the board member of ASPEN (Asian Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology).
Abstract: An optical-comb pulsed interferometer was developed for the high-accuracy absolute length measurements. It is a single-mode fiber optical-comb pulsed interferometer, which a ball lens refractive index of 2 is used as the target. The repetition frequency of a general optical comb is transferred to 1 GHz by an optical fiber-type etalon. The optical frequency comb directly traces through the rubidium frequency standard to the base SI unit, and a ball lens serves as a three dimensional target of the interferometer. Then, a compact absolute position measuring system is realized for practical non-contact use with a high accuracy of measurement.
The verification method of length measurements of coordinate measuring machine (CMM) accordance with ISO 10360-2 is established by the proposed technique. The measurement system is connected through a single-mode fiber more than 100 m long. It is used to connect a laser source from the 10th floor of a building to the proposed measuring system inside a CMM room in the basement of the building.
The proposed measuring technique was compared with the conventional standard step gauge method. The result is that the measurement procedure is simply and less time consumption. It has a high efficiency for the medium-sized to large-sized CMM verification, long-measuring range up to 10 m with a small measurement uncertainty of 0.26 μm/m (k = 2). In addition, the first complete set of the absolute-length measuring machine has been established. Consequently, this research is not limited for only CMM verification, but also can be applied to other absolute-length measurements in dimensional metrology, which performed as a non-contact measurement.